Alto a la siembra de transgénicos; la autorización para que Monsanto siembre soya constituye un desastre socio ambiental incalculable

Monsanto LandPor Cencos, 13 de julio de 2012

Antecedentes

El 29 de febrero de 2012, la empresa Monsanto Comercial S.A. de C.V. solicitó a la SEMARNAT permiso para la liberación al ambiente de Soya Solución Faena -semilla genéticamente modificada y tolerante al herbicida GLIFOSATO- para su cultivo comercial en 253,500 hectáreas, en las regiones de Yucatán, Planicie Huasteca(Tamaulipas, Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí, Veracruz) y en los municipios de Acacoyagua, Acapetahua, Cacahoatán, Escuintla, Frontera Hidalgo, Huehuetán, Huixtla,  Mazatán, Metapa, Suchiapa, Suchiate, Tapachula, Tuxtla Chico, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Tuzantán, Villa Comaltitlán y Villaflores de Chiapas..

De inmediato productores, comercializadores y exportadores de miel de la península de Yucatán presentaron un Amparo ante los Juzgados de Distrito en materia Administrativa por violar el derecho de los pueblos a la consulta pública, lo que presupone contar con información oportuna y suficiente; y el derecho a la participación y al trabajo, con el objetivo de suspender los permisos de siembra de Soya transgénica para evitar la violación de los derechos humanos de los apicultores 1.

El 24 de mayo de 2012, la Red sin Maíz no hay País, denunció ante la opinión pública nacional e internacional la emisión de un dictamen ambiental de SEMARNAT favorable a MONSANTO para la liberación al ambiente de la Soya Transgénica de referencia, que permitiría la siembra de esa semilla en los estados y superficie mencionados, a partir del ciclo agrícola primavera-verano 2012 con vigencia indefinida. Indicando que las zonas de afectación son contiguas a áreas naturales protegidas. Este dictamen es contrario al realizado por la Comisión de Áreas Naturales Protegidas (CONANP) en donde se señala que “…si bien la liberación de Soya Genéticamente Modificada… no se pretende realizar dentro de ninguna de las áreas naturales… es evidente que existe riesgo de afectación indirecta hacia ellas por contaminación de glifosato, así como por la… polinización. Por tal motivo se sugiere… considere la posibilidad de tal actividad sea analizada…desde la perspectiva de la evaluación de impacto ambiental…[tal como lo establece el artículo 28 de la Ley General de Equilibrio Ecológico y la Protección Ambiental]…” El Instituto Nacional de Ecología tampoco consideró conveniente la liberación de la semilla de referencia debido a que no se ha generado información suficiente sobre los riesgos que su cultivo podría generar en el ambiente, la diversidad y la salud 2.

El 30 de mayo de 2012, la Unión de Científicos Comprometidos con la Sociedad (UCCS), a través de la doctora Elena Alvarez Buylla envió a la SAGARPA una petición firmada por 660 científicos para solicitar a su titular no autorizara la solicitud de la siembra de 253,500 hectáreas de Soya Transgénica (evento MON-04032-6) en los estados mencionados por contener “…genes de bacterias que le permiten ser resistente al herbicida glifosato…que implican … efectos nocivos [sobre] la biodiversidad, la economía campesina y la soberanía alimentaria… 3

El 6 de junio de 2012, el comunicado de prensa número 276/12 publicado en el sitio de internet del Servicio Nacional de Sanidad, Inocuidad y Calidad Agroalimentaria, da a conocer la expedición del permiso No. 007/2012 solicitado por Monsanto para la siembra de soya transgénica en los Estados de Campeche, Yucatán, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Veracruz, Tamaulipas y Chiapas. El 14 de junio de 2012 organizaciones civiles e investigadores independientes pidieron al Relator de la ONU para el Derecho a la Alimentación, Oliver De Shutter, ampliara su recomendación de declarar la moratoria para los experimentos sobre el terreno y el cultivo de maíz transgénico con fines comerciales -dado su dañino efecto ecológico, agronómico, social y económico- a la siembra comercial de la soya transgénica por considerar que su cultivo viola el derecho a la alimentación de los pueblos Mayas y Zoques ubicados en los polígonos de siembra solicitados por Monsanto.

El 26 de junio de 2012 organizaciones de la sociedad civil, apicultores y campesinos de Chiapas, presentaron un amparo por violaciones al marco constitucional y a tratados internacionales al “vulnerar los derechos humanos a gozar de un medio ambiente sano, al trabajo y a la consulta pública para los pueblos indígenas”, así como por la inconstitucionalidad de la Ley de Bioseguridad de Organismos Genéticamente Modificados, por no regular de manera adecuada el principio precautorio ni una verdadera participación de las comunidades indígenas cuando puedan ser afectadas 4. Ante la gravedad del contexto descrito, las organizaciones y personas abajo firmantes decidimos, como parte del pueblo mexicano, interponer un amparo contra el permiso otorgado a MONSANTO porque genera las múltiples violaciones a derechos civiles, políticos, económicos, sociales, culturales y ambientales; avalados por el Estado, que enumeramos a continuación:

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