En México, 4 de cada 10 personas no tienen dinero para comprar alimentos

Por Roberto González Amador, La Jornada, 19 de marzo de 2014

Es el menor ingreso disponible de OCDE

México se convirtió en el país de la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE) en el que un mayor número de habitantes, prácticamente cuatro de cada 10, aseguran no tener dinero suficiente para comprar los alimentos mínimos necesarios, reveló un reporte publicado por ese organismo.

Entre los 32 países que pertenecen a la OCDE, México es el que tiene el menor ingreso disponible y, al mismo tiempo, el que destina la menor cantidad de recursos públicos respecto del tamaño de su economía.

La OCDE publicó este martes la edición 2014 de su reporte Panorama de la sociedad, en el que se dedica a documentar las consecuencias de la crisis que estalló en 2008 con el colapso de la banca de inversión en Estados Unidos, para convertirse posteriormente en una recesión mundial.

Tanto para los países más desarrollados económicamente, donde comenzó la crisis financiera, como en aquellos en desarrollo o emergentes, como son identificados en el reporte, los últimos cinco años se han saldado con un deterioro en el bienestar de las familias y un incremento de la desigualdad, a un ritmo que supera al observado en las décadas precedentes, dice el reporte.

En el caso de México, que pertenece a la OCDE desde 1994, el reporte destacó que tiene el menor ingreso disponible entre los países del bloque, con 6 mil 400 dólares, unos 89 mil 600 pesos.

Es poco menos que una tercera parte del promedio para el conjunto de naciones adheridas a esa organización, que es de 23 mil 100 dólares.

Los mexicanos, añade, tienen también el segundo nivel más alto de desigualdad en el ingreso. El ingreso de 10 por ciento de la población más rica es 29 veces mayor que el de 10 por ciento de la población más pobre, una brecha que casi triplica el promedio de la OCDE, que es de 9.5 veces, añadió. El segundo país más desigual del bloque es Chile, con una diferencia de 26.5 veces, y Estados Unidos, donde la brecha es de 16 veces.

Ni para comer

En México, donde uno de cada cinco habitantes vive en extrema pobreza y uno de cada dos en pobreza, en los últimos años creció el número de personas, respecto del total de la población, que no cuenta con suficiente ingreso para adquirir comida, según el reporte.

Al menos 38.3 por ciento de la población mexicana, prácticamente cuatro de cada 10, considera que no tiene suficiente dinero para comprar comida, según el informe de la OCDE. Es una proporción de habitantes, respecto del total, más del doble del promedio para los países que forman esa organización, que fue de 13.2 de cada 100 o 1.3 de cada 10.

Antes de que estallara la crisis de 2009, de acuerdo con los datos del reporte, 31.9 de cada 100 mexicanos consideraba no tener dinero suficiente para comprar comida. En ese entonces, el promedio para la OCDE era de 11.2 de cada 100.

También México resultó, en el compendio de datos contenidos en el informe, como el país con el menor gasto social entre las naciones pertenecientes a la OCDE.

En México el gasto social es equivalente a 7.4 por ciento del producto interno bruto (PIB), el más bajo del bloque. El promedio para todos los países que pertenecen a ese organismo es 21.9 por ciento del PIB. El más alto es el Francia, que equivale a 32.8 por ciento de su producto.

La desigualdad del ingreso y las divisiones sociales pueden empeorar y volverse persistentes a menos que los gobiernos actúen rápidamente para impulsar el apoyo a los sectores más vulnerables de la sociedad, dice el reporte de la OCDE, respecto del aumento de la desigualdad en el mundo como consecuencia de la recesión mundial de 2009, cuyos efectos, dice, se siguen sintiendo.

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